Cover image

Ethics and science : an introduction / Adam Briggle and Carl Mitcham

By: Briggle, Adam
Contributor(s): Mitcham, Carl
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2012Description: xviii, 370 pages illustrations 26 cmISBN: 0521702674 (paperback); 9780521702676 (paperback); 0521878411 (hardback); 9780521878418 (hardback)Subject(s): Research -- Moral and ethical aspects | Science -- Social aspects | Ethics, Research | Politics | Public Policy | Social Conditions | PHILOSOPHY -- Ethics & Moral Philosophy | Naturvetenskap -- etik och moral | Naturvetenskap -- sociala aspekterDDC classification: 174.95 Other classification: 174 | PHI005000 Online resources: Cover image
Contents:
1. Introduction and overview : Setting the stage: The Manhattan Project ; Relations between ethics and science ; Responses: professional, industrial, governmental ; Course of the argument ; Extending reflection: scientific controversies and the Nobel Prize -- 2. Ethical concepts and theories : Setting the stage: The miracle drug thalidomide ; Distinctions and definitions ; Ethics and science: a brief relational history ; From moral knowledge to ethical reasoning ; The role of theory ; Virtue ethics ; Consequentialism ; Deontology ; Strengths, weaknesses, and alternatives ; Extending reflection: codes of conduct for computer scientists and software engineers -- 3. Science and its norms : Setting the stage: Galileo and the church ; Emergence of natural philosophy ; The social institutionalization of science ; Scientific methods and epistemological norms ; Social norms in science ; Extending reflection: anthropologists and the military -- 4. Research ethics I: responsible conduct : Setting the stage: A cloning scandal ; From norms to realities ; Influential cases ; A spectrum of conduct ; The flow 1: anticipating research ; The flow 2: doing research ; The flow 3: disseminating research ; Research ethics in a global context ; Extending reflection: Victor Ninov and Jan Hendrik Schön -- 5. Research ethics II: science involving humans : Setting the stage: Clinical trials in developing countries ; How clinical trials work ; How humans became research subjects ; From subjects to participants: free and informed consent ; The US case: autonomy, beneficence, and justice ; The flow of human participants research: anticipating and practicing ; The flow of human participants research: disseminating ; Extending reflection: using immorally acquired data -- 6. Research ethics III: science involving animals : Setting the stage: War over animal research ; Farms, zoos, pets, wildlife preserves, and laboratories ; Animal welfare and animal rights: a brief history ; The animals issue:
an analysis ; Extending reflection: Temple Grandin
7. The science of ethics : Setting the stage: Sexual harassment among scientists ; What can science tell us about ethics? ; Evolutionary ethics ; Decision science ; Psychology of moral development ; The naturalistic fallacy ; Options for a science of ethics ; Why attempt a strong science of normative ethics? ; Methodological naturalism informing ethics: neuroscience ; Extending reflection: space colonization -- 8. Transition: from ethics to politics and policy : Setting the stage: Developing a course ; The goals of teaching and learning ; Science and ethics or ethics and science? ; For interdisciplinary ethics ; Effective education ; Ethics: from doing things right to doing the right things ; Extending reflection: Einstein on ethics and science -- 9. Science and politics I: policy for science : Setting the stage: Government funding of embryonic stem cell research ; Science in context ; The social contract for science: the linear model ; Questioning the social contract: governing science ; Policies for science budgets ; Science outcomes ; R & D, the market, and well-being ; Scientists' responsibilities for knowledge and its consequences ; Distributing responsibility ; Extending reflection: dual use and publishing a deadly blueprint -- 10. Science and politics II: science for policy : Setting the stage: Climate change and an inconvenient heretic ; Science and decision-making ; The social contract for science revisited ; Questioning the social contract again: science governing ; Science in the military ; Science in the courtroom ; Science in the media ; Extending reflection: premature science? Predicting earthquakes and linking autism with vaccinations -- 11. Science and ideational culture : Setting the stage: The Templeton Foundation ; Science and personal experience ; Science and culture ; Independence: separating science from culture ; Conflict: science and culture in opposition ; Dialogue: science and culture in conversation ; Integration: bringing science and
culture together ; Extending reflection: intelligent design in public schools -- 12. Science applied: ethics and engineering : Setting the stage: The Challenger and Columbia disasters ; Overview, definitions, and contrasts ; A history of ideals in engineering ethics ; Perspectives from different countries ; Confidence and doubt in engineering ; Toward a duty plus respicere in engineering, and in science ; Extending reflection: sustainability and geoengineering -- Looking back, leaning foward: the moral character of scientists -- Appendix: Ethics codes
Summary: "Who owns your genes? What does climate science imply for policy? Do corporations conduct honest research? Should we teach intelligent design? Humans are creating a new world through science. The kind of world we are creating will not simply be decided by expanding scientific knowledge, but will depend on views about good and bad, right and wrong. These visions, in turn, depend on critical thinking, cogent argument and informed judgement. In this book, Adam Briggle and Carl Mitcham help readers to cultivate these skills. They first introduce ethics and the normative structure of science and then consider the 'society of science' and its norms for the responsible conduct of research and the treatment of human and animal research subjects. Later chapters examine 'science in society' - exploring ethical issues at the interfaces of science, policy, religion, culture and technology. Each chapter features case studies and research questions to stimulate further reflection"--
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Includes bibliographical references (pages 328-346) and index

1. Introduction and overview : Setting the stage: The Manhattan Project ; Relations between ethics and science ; Responses: professional, industrial, governmental ; Course of the argument ; Extending reflection: scientific controversies and the Nobel Prize -- 2. Ethical concepts and theories : Setting the stage: The miracle drug thalidomide ; Distinctions and definitions ; Ethics and science: a brief relational history ; From moral knowledge to ethical reasoning ; The role of theory ; Virtue ethics ; Consequentialism ; Deontology ; Strengths, weaknesses, and alternatives ; Extending reflection: codes of conduct for computer scientists and software engineers -- 3. Science and its norms : Setting the stage: Galileo and the church ; Emergence of natural philosophy ; The social institutionalization of science ; Scientific methods and epistemological norms ; Social norms in science ; Extending reflection: anthropologists and the military -- 4. Research ethics I: responsible conduct : Setting the stage: A cloning scandal ; From norms to realities ; Influential cases ; A spectrum of conduct ; The flow 1: anticipating research ; The flow 2: doing research ; The flow 3: disseminating research ; Research ethics in a global context ; Extending reflection: Victor Ninov and Jan Hendrik Schön -- 5. Research ethics II: science involving humans : Setting the stage: Clinical trials in developing countries ; How clinical trials work ; How humans became research subjects ; From subjects to participants: free and informed consent ; The US case: autonomy, beneficence, and justice ; The flow of human participants research: anticipating and practicing ; The flow of human participants research: disseminating ; Extending reflection: using immorally acquired data -- 6. Research ethics III: science involving animals : Setting the stage: War over animal research ; Farms, zoos, pets, wildlife preserves, and laboratories ; Animal welfare and animal rights: a brief history ; The animals issue:

an analysis ; Extending reflection: Temple Grandin

7. The science of ethics : Setting the stage: Sexual harassment among scientists ; What can science tell us about ethics? ; Evolutionary ethics ; Decision science ; Psychology of moral development ; The naturalistic fallacy ; Options for a science of ethics ; Why attempt a strong science of normative ethics? ; Methodological naturalism informing ethics: neuroscience ; Extending reflection: space colonization -- 8. Transition: from ethics to politics and policy : Setting the stage: Developing a course ; The goals of teaching and learning ; Science and ethics or ethics and science? ; For interdisciplinary ethics ; Effective education ; Ethics: from doing things right to doing the right things ; Extending reflection: Einstein on ethics and science -- 9. Science and politics I: policy for science : Setting the stage: Government funding of embryonic stem cell research ; Science in context ; The social contract for science: the linear model ; Questioning the social contract: governing science ; Policies for science budgets ; Science outcomes ; R & D, the market, and well-being ; Scientists' responsibilities for knowledge and its consequences ; Distributing responsibility ; Extending reflection: dual use and publishing a deadly blueprint -- 10. Science and politics II: science for policy : Setting the stage: Climate change and an inconvenient heretic ; Science and decision-making ; The social contract for science revisited ; Questioning the social contract again: science governing ; Science in the military ; Science in the courtroom ; Science in the media ; Extending reflection: premature science? Predicting earthquakes and linking autism with vaccinations -- 11. Science and ideational culture : Setting the stage: The Templeton Foundation ; Science and personal experience ; Science and culture ; Independence: separating science from culture ; Conflict: science and culture in opposition ; Dialogue: science and culture in conversation ; Integration: bringing science and

culture together ; Extending reflection: intelligent design in public schools -- 12. Science applied: ethics and engineering : Setting the stage: The Challenger and Columbia disasters ; Overview, definitions, and contrasts ; A history of ideals in engineering ethics ; Perspectives from different countries ; Confidence and doubt in engineering ; Toward a duty plus respicere in engineering, and in science ; Extending reflection: sustainability and geoengineering -- Looking back, leaning foward: the moral character of scientists -- Appendix: Ethics codes

"Who owns your genes? What does climate science imply for policy? Do corporations conduct honest research? Should we teach intelligent design? Humans are creating a new world through science. The kind of world we are creating will not simply be decided by expanding scientific knowledge, but will depend on views about good and bad, right and wrong. These visions, in turn, depend on critical thinking, cogent argument and informed judgement. In this book, Adam Briggle and Carl Mitcham help readers to cultivate these skills. They first introduce ethics and the normative structure of science and then consider the 'society of science' and its norms for the responsible conduct of research and the treatment of human and animal research subjects. Later chapters examine 'science in society' - exploring ethical issues at the interfaces of science, policy, religion, culture and technology. Each chapter features case studies and research questions to stimulate further reflection"--

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